Mineral Nutrition
THE BENEFITS OF MINERALS
Different minerals have different benefits and no mineral can be termed as more beneficial or less beneficial. All minerals are critical for proper functioning of the body. Most of the minerals aid in body metabolism, water balance, and bone health.Below is list of some of the minerals found in our body, with their benefits.

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Boron
  • Has estrogenic effects
  • Supplementation may inhibit certain prostate cancer cells
  • Deprivation affects cysteine metabolism in a way that negatively affects bone
Copper
  • Deficiency causes hematological abnormalities
  • Modulates cadmium toxicity
  • Role in liver health
  • Improves certain immune functions
  • Important to brain health
  • Deficiency can be cause of bone marrow failure
  • Deficiency associated with atherosclerosis
  • Deficiency is overlooked cause of anemia and neutropenia
  • Deficiency can cause altered cardiac function due to elevated NO Synthases
  • Intake decreases homocysteine and increases gluthathione
  • Deficiency contributes to altered cardiac function
  • Supplementation with copper glycinate increases red cell SOD
  • Has a role in CNS development
  • May be associated with BMI
Manganese
  • Manganese deficiency has been noted in humans in association with vitamin K deficiency
  • Affects skeletal health
  • Deficiency can cause:
    – impaired growth
    – disturbed or depressed reproductive functions
    – lack of muscular coordination among newborns
    – impaired glucose tolerance
  • Plays an active role in wound healing through support of collagen production
  • Manganese deficiency is not common, and there is more concern for toxicity related to manganese overexposure
Selenium
  • Absorption capacity
  • Effect on immune system
  • Positive impact on atherosclerosis seen in diabetics via decreased lesion formation
  • Fights against liver damage
  • Helps prevent gastric cancer
  • Improves lymphocytic function
  • Positive impact on antioxidant activity and glucose homeostasis
  • Deficiency contributes to myopathy
  • Intake of selenium glycinate reduces plasma PSA
Calcium
  • Deficiency found in muscle fatigue
  • Overall low intake in women
  • Supplementation can reduce cancer risks in post menopausal women
  • Intake of 470/mg/day meets bone growth needs of 1-4 year olds
  • Supplementation has positive impact on colon cancer incidence
  • Supplementation has positive effect on lipids during weight loss
  • Deficiency may contribute to insulin insensitivity
Iron
  • Fights anemia of cancer
  • Deficiency causes anemia
  • Deficiency caused by H. pylori
  • Heme iron uptake
  • Iron handling and anemia of chronic disease
  • Iron deficiency due to gastric bypass
  • Ferrous bisglycinate more effective due to better compliance
  • Resulting from less side effects
  • Iron absorption inhibited by tea and enhanced by Vitamin C
  • Deficiency causes decreased cognitive function
  • Daily intake improves anemia status, while weekly intake only maintains status
  • Ferrous Bisglycinate low dose cookie (3.8mg) 3X a week overcomes anemia
  • Iron deficiency linked to depression
  • Iron absorption in intestines is upregulated in iron deficiency
  • Iron deficiency causes increase in zip metal transporters
  • Iron affects behavior
  • Deficiency of iron in infants decreases motor development
  • Deficiency can cause ovary infertility
  • Better to supplement iron in pregnancy than take chances
Molybdenum
  • Contributes to the plasma antioxidant capacity of the blood
  • Plays a role in the metabolism of drugs and toxins
  • Dietary molybdenum deficiency has never been observed in healthy people
Vanadium
  • May be involved in normal bone growth
  • Studies suggest vanadium may reduce blood sugar levels and improve sensitivity to insulin in type 2 diabetes
  • Animal studies suggest that vanadium may protect against colon cancer
  • More research is needed to clarify the role of vanadium in human health
Chromium
  • Known to enhance the action of insulin, a hormone critical to the metabolism and storage of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the body
  • Appears to be directly involved in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, but more research is needed to determine the full range of its roles in the body
  • Sold as a single-ingredient supplement as well as in combination formulas, particularly those marketed for weight loss and performance enhancement
  • Supplement doses typically range from 50 to 200 mcg
  • Certain medications may interact with chromium, especially when taken on a regular basis
  • Before taking dietary supplements, check with your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider, especially if you take prescription or over-the-counter medications
Magnesium
  • Deficiency is associated with disease components of Metabolic Syndrome
  • Deficiency incidence is widespread
  • Has neuro-protective effects
  • Administration modulates cadmium toxicity
  • Deficiency a factor in the increase in serum lipids of diabetes
  • Level of intake an indicator of anemia
  • Low in muscle fatigue
  • Palliates skin allergy
  • Absorption mechanism
  • Anti stress effects
  • Deficiency causes small intestine inflammation
  • Supplementation fights gallstone disease in men
  • Role as chronic cell regulator
  • Decreases inflammatory markers (c-reactive protein) in heart failure
  • Deficiency contributes to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and eclampsia
  • Supplementation improves athletic performance through increasing erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels
  • Little correlation between ionized and total magnesium
  • Intake lowers systemic markers of inflammation
  • Deficiency leads to excess inflammatory response to oxidative stress
  • Deficiency contributes to lens opacifiction
Potassium
  • An essential dietary mineral and electrolyte
  • Abnormally low plasma potassium concentration is referred to as hypokalemia
  • Several large epidemiological studies have suggested that increased potassium intake is associated with decreased risk of stroke
  • Studies have reported positive associations between dietary potassium intake and bone mineral density
  • Has been found to decrease urinary calcium excretion, the primary cause of kidney stones
  • Studies indicate that groups with high dietary potassium have lower blood pressure than comparable groups with low potassium intake
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms are the most common side effects of potassium supplements, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea
Zinc
  • Deficiency associated with cardiomyopathy (IDCMP)
  • Oxidative stress fighter
  • Deficiency is a far greater health problem than previously recognized
  • Deficiency associated with heart abnormalities
  • Deficiency associated with type 2 diabetes
  • High incidence of deficiency in China
  • Anti inflammatory benefits
  • Extends health span (genomic effect)
  • Enhances antioxidant effect
  • Anti-aging effect on immune system
  • Decreases respiratory tract infection
  • Deficiency is higher than believed and is associated with many real clinical problems
  • Use prevents some alcohol effects on the fetal neurological system
  • Supplementation helps fight pneumonia in elderly
  • Health impact on 300 enzyme systems
  • Deficiency is pro-atherosclerotic
  • Supplementation suppresses disease activity of ulcerative colitis
  • Loss can be both cause and effect of high blood pressure
  • Deficiency impairs EPO production leading to a decrease in red cell production
  • Supplementation has positive impact on oxidative stress of exercise
  • Has hepato-protective properties
  • Supplementation seen to decrease incidence of infection and decrease oxidative stress
  • Inhibits iron absorption, the degree of which depends on the Zinc/Iron ratio in lumen
  • Impacts cognitive function
  • Can negatively impact iron status
  • Supplementation improves immune response in elderly
  • Deficiency often seen in exclusively breast fed causing skin lesions
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
What are nutritional minerals?
As simple as it may seem, this question is the first step in examining the role of minerals in nutrition. The dictionary describes minerals as solid, crystalline substances (diamond, copper, quartz, etc.) not of animal or vegetable origin. The key words are “not of animal or vegetable origin” meaning they are inorganic elements. Because minerals intended for nutritional purposes cannot be synthesized by the body, they must be utilized as natural elements – they must be eaten and successfully absorbed.

In context, we are talking about nutritional minerals. Nutritional minerals are a small sub group of the above broad, general statement. Though nutritional mineral requirements differ between plants and animals, generally the nutritional minerals are regarded as: Boron, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Potassium, Calcium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum and Iodine.

What are chelated minerals?
“Chelated minerals” is a scientific term referring to a very specific molecular reaction that takes place between a molecule and a nutritional mineral.

Chelation is a natural process that happens in the gut to facilitate transportation of nutritional minerals across the intestinal wall as a part of digestion. As our body is not very efficient at producing chelated minerals, we look to these mineral forms in nutritional supplements to assure greater efficiencies of absorption.

At Albion, we create these chelated minerals in our laboratories under very carefully controlled conditions. Albion’s most commonly used molecule to create organic chelated nutritional minerals is glycine. Glycine is an amino acid that the body readily identifies and which is efficiently absorbed across the intestinal wall. Albion’s glycine amino acid chelates are actually small enough to be transported right into the cell itself.

For more explanation click here click here

Why are Albion chelated minerals better?
Through years of extensive research, clinical analysis, third party critiques and careful laboratory manufacturing, only Albion can produce this highly effective and bioavailable mineral form. Albion’s patented process assures the customer they are getting a unique product in the market place that closely duplicates the natural chelation process that occurs in the body.

Albion’s science turns inorganic minerals into very small individual organic mineral molecules which are neutral and therefore highly bioavailable and effective.
Size:
Picture in your mind the fuel filter on your car engine. The filter allows fuel to pass through but holds back large particles from entering the engine. The same idea applies to the absorption of minerals from the intestine to the blood stream. Large particles cannot easily pass through the intestinal wall. Many mineral products on the market have molecular weights that are too large to be absorbed intact. Through patented technology, Albion produces chelated minerals with molecular weights small enough to easily pass through the intestinal wall. The Albion chelate is similar to that which the body itself produces by natural chelation.
Neutrality:
The process of chelation results in the final mineral compound becoming neutral, i.e., containing no electrical charge. This is important because electrically charged mineral compounds can interact with other dietary components, such as phytates and other oppositely charged molecules, and from substances that are not absorbable. In addition, charged mineral compounds are reactive and can deactivate other important nutrient factors, such as vitamin E, ascorbic acid, various B-vitamins, and certain medications.

What is stability and why is it important?
Simply mixing inorganic minerals with amino acids in a liquid or dry mixture does not allow chelation to occur. Simple ionic and hydrogen bonding of minerals to amino acids does not produce a stable product. Minerals and amino acids must be processed according to a specific formula in order to create a stable (coordinate covalent) bond, which is essential for greater bioavailability.

Albion’s patented processes assure that this bond is formed Many products on the market are reported to be chelates. Some of these products are only complexed mixtures of minerals and proteins and cannot be identified as true amino acid chelates. These complexed mixtures lose stability during digestion, compromising the availability of the mineral nutrient. When looking for available minerals, look for Albion chelates. We guarantee purity and stability.

Why are minerals important to the body?
Each of the following systems in the body utilize minerals. Research shows that imbalances or deficiencies in mineral nutrition can affect these systems:

  • Immune System: Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Selenium (Se)
  • Energy Production:Magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P) and Manganese (Mn)
  • Hormone System:Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Magnesium (Mg) and Potassium (K)
  • Vitamin Production: Cobalt (Co)
  • Blood Production: Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe)
  • Supplementation has positive effect on lipids during weight loss
  • Enzyme Systems: Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Potassium (K), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca) and Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Skeletal System:Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Boron (B) and Phosphorus (P)
How are mineral amino acid chelates absorbed?
Because the body is very efficient at absorbing individual amino acids, it allows a mineral chelated to an amino acid to be carried along with its amino acid ligand into the intestinal cell during absorption.

Clinical studies have shown that the intestinal absorption pathway of an amino acid chelate is different than the absorption of minerals from inorganic metal salts. As the amino acid chelate approaches the intestinal wall, it remains the same molecule that was ingested. The chelate does not require digestion prior to absorption due to its size. The glycine amino acid chelate, for example, is stable and does not become disassociated in the stomach.

Along the intestinal wall are finger-like projections called villi. The villi increase the surface area for the amino acid chelate to be absorbed. On each villus are microvilli. It is through the membranes of the cell walls of the microvilli that the amino acid chelate is absorbed.

Once inside the cells, the components of the chelate are used by the body as any mineral and amino acid would be after absorption. Chelating with ligands like glycine to form a glycine amino acid chelate makes more of the ingested minerals available for metabolic purposes (growth, reproduction, immunity, etc.) compared to other inorganic and organic mineral forms (metal proteinates or amino acid complexes).

Numerous clinical studies have proven that Albion’s metal amino acid chelates are better absorbed than inorganic minerals, metal proteinates, or amino acid complexes. In fact the absorption pathway of a metal proteinate is unknown. Amino acid complexes are hydrolyzed in the stomach and intestine, and the minerals are absorbed similarly to inorganic metal salts.

Due to pH constraints, minerals from amino acid complexes or digested metal proteinates can only be absorbed in the upper portion of the small intestine (duodenum). Proteinates do require digestion prior to absorption due their large size. Complexes are not stable compounds and will disassociate in the stomach.

How does one compare Albion chelates with other mineral forms?
Simply ask the following questions:

  • Are the minerals truly chelated to amino acids or just complexed or are they simply trace minerals mixed with protein?
  • Is there proof of the chelate bond formation in the product?
  • Is the product stable when subjected to various pH ranges found in digestion. (pH 2.0 – 7.5)?
  • Are the minerals truly chelated to amino acids or just complexed or are they simply trace minerals mixed with protein?
  • Does the product have test data to show that it really works?
  • Compare pricing. You may pay less for some reported chelates and complexes, but are they really cheaper? If the product is not truly a chelate, then you are essentially buying inorganic minerals at a premium price. Without guaranteed availability, you lose two ways: cost and mineral utilization.
What are mineral antagonisms?
A mineral wheel illustrates the impediments to absorption that exist between certain minerals. The arrowheads point toward the ionic minerals that are suppressed in intestinal absorption by the presence of the ionic forms of the mineral at the opposite end of the line.

Double and opposing arrowheads on the same line show a mutual suppression between elements. Mineral antagonisms cause imbalances of some minerals in relation to others that cause problems with mineral utilization. This interference is called “mineral antagonism.”
Mineral Wheel AntagonismsMineral Wheel with animated Antagonisms

What is bioavailability?
Bioavailability is the measure of the amount of an ingested nutrient that is absorbed and made available to the body for metabolic use. Bioavailability is important because nutrients must be absorbed to be available to various body systems for growth, maintenance of body tissues, reproduction, and other performance factors.

No matter how high the nutrient levels or how well formulated the product, if the nutrient is not bioavailable for use by body tissue, then money and effort have been wasted.

What proof does Albion have of producing a truly chelated mineral molecule and its bioavailability?
Only Albion has been able to demonstrate that its patented technology produces totally reacted, nutritionally functional mineral amino acid chelates. And only Albion has incorporated many scientific procedures showing the validity of their chelation technology.

Numerous clinical studies have been performed over the years by leading universities and independent researchers, demonstrating the superior bioavailability of Albion’s chelates. Only Albion has been able to demonstrate the superior bioavailability of the unique chelates formed through Albion’s patented processes.
Testing procedures utilizing some of the following determinative methods are part of the proof.

  • X-ray Diffraction
  • Electron Paramagnetic resonance Spectrometry (EPR)
  • Infrared Spectrometry (IR)
  • Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR or FTIR)
RECOMMENDED MINERAL INTAKE

Here is a table showing the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for a range of minerals, some varying for different age groups, based on research in the USA.

It’s not necessary for your daily multi-vitamin / mineral pills to contain 100% of every nutrient. The volume would be large because some of them, such as Calcium, would not fit into a single pill.

NK means “not known”
Mg = milligrams
Mcg = micrograms (1,000 mcg = 1 mg)

Mineral Women Men
minimum maximum minimum maximum
Boron NK 20mg NK 20mg
Boron(ages14-18) 17mg 17mg
Calcium 1,000mg 2,5000mg 1,000mg 2,500mg
Calcium (ages14-18) 1,300mg 1,300mg
Calcium (ages51+) 1,200mg 1,200mg
Chromium 25mcg NK 35mcg NK
Chromium (ages51+) 20mcg 30mcg
Copper 900mcg 10,000mcg 900mcg 10,000mcg
Fluoride 3mg 10mg 4mg 10mg
Iodine 150mcg 1,000mcg 150mcg 1,000mcg
Iron 18mg 45mg 8mg 45mg
Iron (ages14-18) 15mg 11mg
Iron (ages50+) 8mg
Magnesium 310mg 350mg 350mg 400mg
Magnesium (ages14-18) 360mg 410mg
Magnesium (ages31+) 320mg 420mg
Manganese 1.8mg 11mg 2.3mg 11mg
Manganese (ages14-18) 1.6mg 9mg 2.2mg 9mg
Molybdenum 45mcg 2,000mcg 45mcg 2,000mcg
Molybdenum (ages14-18) 43mcg 1,700mcg 43mcg 1,700mcg
Nickel NK 1.0mg NK 1.0mg
Phosphorus 700mg 4,000mg 700mg 4,000mg
Phosphorus (ages14-18) 1,250mg 1,250mg
Potassium 4,200mg 4,700mg 4,200mg 4,700mg
Selenium 55mcg 400mcg 55mcg 400mcg
Vanadium NK 1.8mg NK 1.8mg
Zinc 8mg 40mg 11mg 40mg
Mineral table - Women
Mineral table - Men
Vitamins, Minerals, Chelates:
What’s the difference?
Chelation Therapy –
Not the same as chelated minerals
VITAMINS: A Vitamin is an organic compound needed by organisms to keep them functioning and healthy. These compounds are made up of two or more elements. Elements are pure molecules with no other ingredients and the building blocks of all compounds.

MINERALS: Understanding this ‘element and compound’ concept is key to understanding what nutritional minerals are and how living organisms use them. Nutritional minerals are elements and are represented on the periodic table.

These minerals can all be found in the earth in their natural, pure form and are known as “inorganic elements”.

CHELATES: Living organisms cannot use inorganic minerals directly and must therefore convert them to an organic, biological form, or organic compound.

This happens in the digestive system, where the chemical process of bonding an inorganic molecule to an organic molecule is called chelation. The end product of this process is called a chelate. On a cellular level this chelate is seen as an organic compound that can be absorbed and used in the body of a living organism.

The biological world in the digestive process is not always perfect though and many things can affect the efficiency of the natural chelation process. Minerals are very often not assimilated properly and it may become very difficult to absorb enough minerals from food intake alone to keep the body at optimal health.

This is where science and technology come into the picture. Albion has manufactured a mineral amino acid chelate – a chelated organic form of inorganic mineral elements. This will substantially increase the probability of absorption in the digesting process.

For a more scientific explanation of the above information, please go here.

The scientific term “Chelation” refers to a molecule that attaches to a single atom (or mineral) at two places. This particular two-point bond is unique and does not always happen easily in the body.

Over 50 years ago, the founder of Albion, Dr Havey Ashmead, discovered the previously unknown process our digestive system uses to absorb nutritional minerals into the bloodstream.

Today Albion manufactures pre-chelated minerals that replicate the natural process that takes place in our bodies during digestion. This results in a significant increase in absorption.

“Chelation Therapy” is a distinctive practice that is generally used when a condition of mineral toxicity is indicated.

Minerals such as mercury, lead and arsenic are just a few of the known toxins to the body.

This therapy involves the administration of a chelating agent (the molecule that attaches to the mineral at two points) into the body to perform the chelating process to remove the toxic minerals.

This agent will bond with ALL the minerals in a strong way that pulls them from the body so that they can be excreted. The process must be carefully monitored, so as not to create an imbalance between good minerals and toxic minerals.

For more scientific information please go here

Vitamins, Minerals, Chelates:
What’s the difference?
VITAMINS: A Vitamin is an organic compound needed by organisms to keep them functioning and healthy. These compounds are made up of two or more elements. Elements are pure molecules with no other ingredients and the building blocks of all compounds.

MINERALS: Understanding this ‘element and compound’ concept is key to understanding what nutritional minerals are and how living organisms use them. Nutritional minerals are elements and are represented on the periodic table.

These minerals can all be found in the earth in their natural, pure form and are known as “inorganic elements”.

CHELATES: Living organisms cannot use inorganic minerals directly and must therefore convert them to an organic, biological form, or organic compound.

This happens in the digestive system, where the chemical process of bonding an inorganic molecule to an organic molecule is called chelation. The end product of this process is called a chelate. On a cellular level this chelate is seen as an organic compound that can be absorbed and used in the body of a living organism.

The biological world in the digestive process is not always perfect though and many things can affect the efficiency of the natural chelation process. Minerals are very often not assimilated properly and it may become very difficult to absorb enough minerals from food intake alone to keep the body at optimal health.

This is where science and technology come into the picture. Albion has manufactured a mineral amino acid chelate – a chelated organic form of inorganic mineral elements. This will substantially increase the probability of absorption in the digesting process.

For a more scientific explanation of the above information, please go here.

Chelation Therapy –
Not the same as chelated minerals
The scientific term “Chelation” refers to a molecule that attaches to a single atom (or mineral) at two places. This particular two-point bond is unique and does not always happen easily in the body.

Over 50 years ago, the founder of Albion, Dr Havey Ashmead, discovered the previously unknown process our digestive system uses to absorb nutritional minerals into the bloodstream.

Today Albion manufactures pre-chelated minerals that replicate the natural process that takes place in our bodies during digestion. This results in a significant increase in absorption.

“Chelation Therapy” is a distinctive practice that is generally used when a condition of mineral toxicity is indicated.

Minerals such as mercury, lead and arsenic are just a few of the known toxins to the body.

This therapy involves the administration of a chelating agent (the molecule that attaches to the mineral at two points) into the body to perform the chelating process to remove the toxic minerals.

This agent will bond with ALL the minerals in a strong way that pulls them from the body so that they can be excreted. The process must be carefully monitored, so as not to create an imbalance between good minerals and toxic minerals.

For more scientific information please go here